The principle of ChIP-chip is simple. The first step is to cross-link the protein-DNA complex. This is done using a fixating agent, such as formaldehyde. The cross-linking can later be reversed with heat. Cross-linking kills the cell, giving a snapshot of the bound TF at a given time. The cell is then lysed, the DNA sheared by sonication and the chromatin (TF-DNA complexes) is pulled down using an antibody (i.e. immunoprecipitated). If an antibody for the TF is available, then it is used; otherwise, the TF is tagged with an epitope targeted by commercially available antibodies (the latter option is cheaper, but runs the risk of altering the TF's functionality). Cross-linking is then reversed to free the bound DNA, which is then amplified, labeled with a fluorophore and dumped onto a DNA-array. The scanned array reveals the genomic regions bound by the TF. The resolution is around ~500 bp as a result of the sonication step.
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams
show binding sites,
both positively and negatively regulated
genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation.
For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.