lacZ reporter assays and EMSA results indicated that FleQ and RpoN directly upregulate the expression of several flagellar genes. Specific locations of the FleQ binding sites were determined by DNase I footprinting. Functionality of the FleQ binding site in the flhA promoter region was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, EMSA, and lacZ reporter fusion assay.
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams show binding sites, positively-regulated genes, negatively-regulated genes, both positively and negatively regulated genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation. For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.
|Site sequence||Regulated genes||Gene diagram||Experimental techniques||TF function||TF type|