Citing previous studies as evidence of ToxT control of the ctxAB operon, researchers first ran a CP footprinting assay, which showed protection of the latter 3 members of the GATTTTT heptad repeat that is canonically associated with ToxT and ToxR binding. Researchers then conducted B-gal assays of point mutations of the positions of the footprint. Finally, researchers ran EMSAs different length promoter fragments. All three experiments suggested the presence of 2 ToxT binding sites covering repeats 5 and 6, and a portion of the AT-rich region after the repeats.
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams show binding sites, positively-regulated genes, negatively-regulated genes, both positively and negatively regulated genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation. For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.
|Site sequence||Regulated genes||Gene diagram||Experimental techniques||TF function||TF type|