Researchers used a B-Gal assay and primer extension assay to determine that AphA represses qrr 2-4. They then used a DNase I assay to show that AphA protects the qrr4 promoter-proximal region (the lead ncRNA); furthermore, an EMSA of the qrr4 promoter-proximal region showed that in-vitro binding. The site described by the authors derives from the consensus site ATATGCA-N6-TGCATAT
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams show binding sites, positively-regulated genes, negatively-regulated genes, both positively and negatively regulated genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation. For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.
|Site sequence||Regulated genes||Gene diagram||Experimental techniques||TF function||TF type|