pilA transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. Visual sequence inspection of the pilA promoter revealed a CtrA binding motif overlapping -35 region. Beta-gal activity analysis determined that pilA expression was reduced to 17% of the wild-type C. crescentus NA1000 expression level in the ctrA mutant strain. DNase I footprinting identified that a CtrA~P but not unphosphorylated CtrA protected three regions containing CtrA binding motifs.
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams show binding sites, positively-regulated genes, negatively-regulated genes, both positively and negatively regulated genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation. For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.
|Site sequence||Regulated genes||Gene diagram||Experimental techniques||TF function||TF type|