Reporter assay using the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) gene.
The lacZ gene is typically fused to the promoter of interest. Differential regulation of the promoter mediated by the TF is assessed by induction of the system and evaluation of lacZ expression. Bacteria expressing lacZ appear blue when grown on a X-gal medium.
The assay is often performed using a plasmid borne construction on a lacZ(def) strain.
This is a weak form of in-silico search, in which the consensus sequence for the motif is compared to genomic positions and the number of mismatches (between candidate site and consensus) is used as a measure of site-quality.
Target-specific mutation, as opposed to non-specific mutation.
In the context of TF-binding sites, site-directed mutagenesis is typically used to establish/confirm the specific sequence and location of a site, often in tandem with EMSA.
Different positions of a putative binding site are mutated to non-consensus (or random) bases and binding to the mutated site is evaluated through EMSA or other means. Often implemented only in conserved motif positions or serially through all positions of a site.
Regulated genes for each binding site are displayed below. Gene regulation diagrams
show binding sites,
both positively and negatively regulated
genes, genes with unspecified type of regulation.
For each indvidual site, experimental techniques used to determine the site are also given.